Professor Hein de Haas points out the misunderstanding that development aid in countries prevents migration. Indeed, the development in the poorest countries, for instance in Sub-Sahara Africa, will almost inevitably lead to more migration, because it increases capacity and aspiration to migrate. “…therefore, future immigrants in Europe might increasingly come from sub-Saharan Africa instead of Turkey and North Africa.” (1)
Klaus Woltron doubt that migration of needy refugees in wealthy countries does diminish poverty in the world. The population continues to grow dramatically without contraception. The growth of population in developing countries is greater than the number of migrants. Woltron complains that the Catholic Church does not support contraception and fears that the high birth rates of Muslims in Europe strengthen political Islam. The most effective measure is to raise the standard of education enabling to increase the standard of living considerably; however, the higher standard of living will cause higher energy consumption, higher emissions, and waste – a vicious circle. (2)
Judith Kohlenberger examined that population growth in Africa is based less on increasing fertility but on falling child mortality. She endorses that Europe enters into a partnership with Africa to promote education and circular migration. Kohlberger says that a complete stop of the African migration to Europe would be neither realistic nor sensible, so she rejects the closure of escape routes. Both sides, Europe and Africa, would benefit from circular migration. That is legal work, study and (dual) education in Europe employing work-, or student-card coupled with a voluntary return after a few years. (3)
Experts like Jeffrey Sachs and Juliette Lyons debate the negative consequences of aid. It has left developing countries in a worse place than before. Africa as a whole receives around $50 billion of international assistance annually. Instead of improving the living conditions of the 600 million people, the aid makes the rich richer, the poor poorer. It hinders economic growth in the region. Unfortunately, foreign aid strengthens corruption in countries where it is already widespread. Another consequence is aid dependence, – vast sums of money collected on foreign aid are not applied to promote local business, but used as “free” money at their disposal (4).
The international community is devoted to assisting developing countries such as Africa in achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through significant increases in foreign aid spending. However, experts maintain different opinions about additional aid in meeting the SDGs. To moderate the different opinions is the application of tools used in Project-Management: Payments for Progress linked to additional aid to clear evidence of progress achieved ensuring that aid pays only for real, measurable achievements (5).
Sanjay G. Reddy R. warns that the foreign debt of Sub-Saharan-Africa has doubled between 2008-2016 to more than $ 450 billion. This high debt threatens the UN Sustainable Development Goals (17 SDGs) in this region seriously. So far, there is no mechanism to combat this debt crisis effectively. “… it is time to legislate and implement principles …”. Klaus Woltron doubts that the industrialized countries are in a position – given their massive debts – to eliminate the misery in developing countries (5).
(1)“Development aid does not prevent migration,” Making It, Number 25, page 13. Hein de Haas, Professor of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam and founding member of the International Migration Institute (IMI) of the University of Oxford.
(2) Klaus Woltron, Wie viele Menschen trägt die Welt? Krone Bunt, Sonntag 3. März 2019. Woltron was former leader of multinational companies, industrialist, business philosopher and author.
(3) Judith Kohlenberger, Ein kompletter Stopp der Migration aus Afrika ist nicht sinnvoll, firstname.lastname@example.org. Kohlenberger is Research Assistant at the Institute for Social Policy of WU Vienna and member of the Querdenkerplattform Wien-Europe – www.querdenkereurope.at
(4) Juliette Lyons, Foreign aid is hurting, not helping Sub-Saharan Africa, Le Journal International, 13. October 2014. https://www.linkedin.com/in/lyonsjuliette/
(5) Owen Matthew Barder, Payments for Progress: A Hands-Off Approach to Foreign Aid, Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 102, 24 Pages Posted: 2 May 2007, Center for Global Development, Date Written: December 2006
(6) Sanjay G. Reddy, Warnsignale in Subsahara-Afrika, Südwind Magazin, Nr.11-12/November 2018. Sanjay G. Reddy is a lecturer in economics at the New School for Social Research, New York.
Drivers of Migration
EU policy-makers have no control over the situation caused by migration. Their attempt to look at the big picture and long-term impacts of migration on the European society and its labor force failed until now. That is the reason why the EU policymakers turned 2016 to IIASA (-1-) to launch a partnership with the goal to get a more scientific basis for their policymaking. IIASA focuses on their systematic analysis on the drivers of migration such as pull factors that drive people towards to a new country and push factors that drive people to leave their homes. This partnership plans to produce scenarios exposing “…the potential impacts of different immigration policies, allowing policymakers to make educated decisions and smart planes…” (-2-). The present findings of IIASA are that the EU future labor force depends not only on migration but also on the proportion of people working (-3-): (1) people over the age of 65 become progressively active in the labor market. (2) Women were to work in the EU at rates common in Sweden. (3) Increasing Digitalisation and Automatization reduces the need for unskilled workers, but increase the need for more educated workers. The result is that the future EU labor force size requires only a moderate rate of migration in the long term. IIASA is just not only modeling the accumulated population but include the characteristics of the individual. Those characteristics include demographics (age and sex, education), ethnocultural (place of birth, ethnicity, language, religion), and economic (labor activity, employment). IIASA applies microsimulation (contrary to the macro-level approach used for the broad population) to find answers “- how well immigrants -are able – to adjust to their new countries, learn the language, find jobs -.“ (-4-) , and to asses the integration of migrants into society. IIASA does not restrict their scenarios to Europe but takes into account worldwide drivers for migration: the population growth in Africa, climate change, food security, and other challenges.
(-1-) IIASA, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, located near Vienna in Laxenburg Austria, use systems analysis to research critical issues of environments, economic, and technology change we face today. www.iiasa.ac.at
(-2-), (-3-), (-4-) “What Drives Migration,” Options, Summer 2018. Page 18.
Roland Leithenmayr VfV
Migration as Sustainable Development Goal?
One of the sub-goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs) is the “Sustainable Industrial Development”. The UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization in Vienna/Austria) is in the fortunate position to command this goal. The migration crisis offers UNIDO exceptional opportunities to highlight its importance. The SDGs don’t address directly the issue of immigration, but positively viewing it would boost the Sustainable Industrial Development in developing countries with positive impacts in the developed countries: a win-win situation! To achieve those SDGs it requires the cooperation and collaboration of companies (including SME) and international and local NGOs. The UNIDO and the UNO provide a platform with their website https://open.unido.org/index.html#/projects, respectively https://www.devbusiness.com, notifying about programs, projects, and tenders.
Nevertheless, it appears that Austrian companies and other organization are irritated about short communication with UNIDO. Austria is proud to have the UNIDO here in Vienna/Austria and wants to convince the lost member-states to become members again by receiving for their membership dues an adequate performance. Programs and projects for Sustainable Industrial Development should include measures for the solution of the migration crisis. The UN NGO Committee on Sustainable Development in Vienna/Austria with international and national members of NGOs and links to industry-, trade- and other organizations are ready to collaborate with UNIDO on this issue.
UNIDOs collaboration with Austrian companies ->
Migration in Europe
The WU (Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna/Austria) panel discussed about the
“Migration in Europe”.
Here the complete video recording of the panel discussion (German): http://www.wu.ac.at/wutv/show/clip/20160127-migration-k/
A short video contains interesting statements of experts charged (German): http://www.wu.ac.at/wutv/show/clip/20160127-migration/
Detailed interviews (which were also placed at the panel discussion) for future reference page (German)http://power2help.at/resources
The WU starts in a few weeks with the initiative POWER 2 HELP a series of evening workshops provide the skills and resources for the initial reception and integration of asylum seekers.
Thus, the WU wants to support workers / inside so that they can continue to be involved. Target groups are the many volunteers in the initial reception and integration of asylum seekers, volunteer
Employees / inside of relief organizations and those people who want to get involved but do not know how. The workshop program can be found here: http://power2help.at/workshops
When asking questions concerning this initiative, please contact email@example.com
Andre Martinuzzi, Fred Luks,Vera Ulmer,Sabine Eichinger
a.Prof. Dr. André Martinuzzi, Head of the Institute for Managing Sustainability, Associate Professor at WU Vienna, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Building D1, 2nd Floor, World Trade Square 1A-1020 Vienna, Phone: + 43-664-405 12 97, fax: + 43-1-31336-90-4698, skype: amartinu,
email: firstname.lastname@example.org, http://www.sustainability.eu
GLOBAL VALUE – Managing Business Impacts on Development http://www.global-value.eu
ESDN – European Sustainable Development Network http://www.sd-network.eu
The Author of this posting Roland Leithenmayr, VfV, Postings on Migration will follow!